Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn and Malenoski wrote about cues, questions and advance organizers (2007) as a single chapter, and for good reason. A cue has the ability to preview the experience (p. 73), just like a posing an essential question can do (p. 74). These lead-off devices help students to get focused on important details. Because some information outlined in a lesson is simply supporting context that is not significant on a grander scale, these appetizers allow students to cognitively recognize where their focus should be.
Organizers are also a great way to aid students down the correct learning path. By using structures such as a concept map, ideas can be built of a main idea, outlining the importance of each portion of the unit as well as putting it in context. A note-taking skeleton, or outline, helps to set up the information in advance for the students and allows them to stay up to speed during a lesson (p. 76).
To organize even further, technological devices foster more organization and can help create things such as brainstorming sessions (p. 75). Beyond brainstorming, integrating multimedia interface creates a mental picture that students can draw back on when recalling this information down the road (p. 82). A new way to help build a memorable image is known as a Virtual Field Trip. This cyber journey brings images to life and gives a student a stronger emotional connection with the topic.
Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn and Malenoski also paired together summarizing and note taking in a chapter (2007). While note taking in Physical Education classes is rare, it is important to summarize to condense content so that important details are focused on and maintained (p. 119). As mentioned earlier, it is essential to delve deeper than just the surface when discussing a topic, but some of what is explored must then be forgotten (p. 119). With this said, bringing the lesson or concept back around at the end of the class or of the unit helps to drive home the important points. This is why a concept map can be so beneficial, because it has the ability to lend greater weight to a part of the map by making it larger, more central, or higher up, depending on the outline.
Students learn in a variety of ways, and it is important to immerse them in the topic to allow them to connection with the lesson. However when taking details away from the episode, they must be able to grasp what is the most important and these strategies are a great way to enable that.
Pitler H., Hubbell, E., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works.
: ASCD. Alexandria, VA